The University of Texas at Arlington Graduate Catalog 2004-2006 Vol LXXXVII - July 2004
Thesis and Non-Thesis
107 Business, 817.272.3005
James Campbell Quick
107 Business, 817.272.2522
Amacher, Apilado, R. Baker, Dickinson, Diltz, Dunn, Gray, T. Hall, Himarios, McDaniel, Meiners, Munch, Panton, Price, Quick, Raja, Rasheed, Swanson, Taylor, Teng, Whiteside
Bell, Crowder, Depken, Duwaji, Eakin, Frazier, B. Hall, Ho, Mark, McConnell, McGee, McMahan, Peterson, Sarkar, Sikora, Slinkman, Tsay, Walther, Ward, Wheeler
Benson, Butters, Cannon, Duffy, Gallo, Hansz, Henderson, Hyland, Kleiser, LaFountain, Lavelle, Mahapatra, Mosley-Matchett, Nerur, Payne, Prater, Song, Sonora, Subramaniam, Swafford, Wilson
The Master of Business Administration program offers enhanced learning experiences that prepare leaders and managers for careers with all types of organizations. The faculty's research commitment and consulting rigor contribute to educational excellence. The community of shared knowledge leads to strategic partnerships that significantly enhance the nature of business education. A variety of MBA degrees and certificates are offered to serve a wide variety of interests.
Graduates from the programs are competent in the leadership of organizations and the cross-functional management of organizational resources. Competence is based on educational experiences that foster creative thinking, awareness of global opportunities, sound analytic decision making, strategic awareness, excellence in functional disciplines, and the internalized values of effective teamwork and leadership. The dedicated faculty and high quality career services assist each student in achieving their educational and career goals.
The Master of Business Administration program is accredited by the AACSB International, the top accreditation body for business schools in the U.S.
Admission to the MBA program is based upon the completion of the general admission requirements of the Graduate School. For MBA program admission a score on the Graduate Management Admission Test (GMAT) and record of one's undergraduate academic performance are required. Students for whom English is not their native language must also achieve a TOEFL score of at least 550. International applicants that score below minimum acceptable levels on the verbal portion of entrance examinations may be admitted under the condition that they pass an English proficiency exam or complete U.T. Arlington's Graduate English Skills Program prior to beginning graduate coursework. Applicants are encouraged to submit with their application a resume that highlights professional and personal accomplishments, linguistic abilities, computer expertise and leadership experience. Applicants with two to five years of experience are preferred. A standardized test score (GMAT) will not be used as the sole criterion for denying an applicant's admission to the MBA program.
Specifically, multiple criteria are used to make admission decisions. Quantitative measures include an applicant's GMAT score and grade point average as calculated by the Graduate School. These measures are integrated into a formula, or index, that multiplies the grade point average by 200 and adds the total GMAT score. Index factors are weighed equally at the outset of applicant evaluation. A graduate grade point average is used in the index when it is 3.0 or above and is based on at least 24 semester hours.
Along with the grade point average and GMAT total score, admission criteria include the following:
For unconditional admission, the applicant's composite total from the index must be 1080 or higher and items 1 through 5 above should strongly indicate potential for successful academic performance as a graduate business student.
Students who are unconditionally admitted, have a minimum undergraduate grade point average of 3.0 as calculated by the Graduate School (or 3.0 at the graduate level), and enroll for a minimum of six semester credit hours will be eligible for available fellowship and/or scholarship support. A standardized test score (GMAT) will not be used as the sole criterion for determining fellowship and/or scholarship eligibility.
For an applicant with an index score below 1080 or an applicant who shows deficiency in one or more areas of items 1-9, probationary admission may be available when at least three items of 1 through 5 above strongly indicate potential for successful academic performance as a graduate business student. Items 6 through 9 will also be used to identify positive indicators for admission. Students who are admitted on probation will have one or more conditions specified, such as no grade less than 'B' for the first 12 hours of graduate study.
A provisional decision to admit may be granted when the applicant meets criteria for unconditional or probationary status but one or more applicant credentials are incomplete. A deferred decision may be made when an applicant's file is not sufficiently complete to make an admit or deny decision.
For an applicant with an index score less than 1040 and other evidence indicates lack of potential for academic success as a graduate business student, admission will likely be denied. However, all applicant data will be carefully reviewed before an admission denial is made.
The program is designed to accommodate both full-time and part-time students from widely divergent backgrounds. It is not necessary to have completed prior academic work in business administration. Core courses, which are an integral part of the program, are designed to prepare the student for advanced coursework. In order to accommodate the needs of fully employed professionals, the College of Business Administration offers a complete program in the evening and on Saturday. Most evening or Saturday classes are taught by full-time faculty members and the same academic standards required of full-time students are maintained. Students are expected to progress through the program at a pace that is commensurate with the time available.
There are three types of required courses: deficiency, core and advanced. Programs of work will normally vary in length from 36 to 48 hours (plus deficiency courses), depending upon waivers granted. The first two waivers of core courses will be used to expand the number of electives in the advanced program rather than shorten the overall program. Additional waivers of core courses may reduce the program to a minimum of 36 hours. Applicants may have both deficiency and core courses waived without the requirement for a substitute course if they have completed, during the last 10 years, a similar course at a recognized college or university and received a "B" or better grade.* Extensions to this 10 year limit may be granted for managers and executives who have completed educational activities to remain current or have extensive related experience. Additionally, a maximum of 9 hours of advanced coursework may be transferred in from other AACSB accredited schools if approved by program advisor. Transfer of graduate classes from other universities will be considered on a case by case basis.
* Note: The University of Texas at Arlington and The University of Texas at Austin offer Business Foundations Programs (BFP) for non-business majors that provide solid foundations in basic business concepts. BFP courses and courses from equivalent programs for non-business majors at other colleges/universities may not be used for course waiver credit.
Applicants are encouraged to complete deficiency requirements prior to applying or at the beginning of their studies. College courses in business math (including probability and set theory, linear equations, matrix algebra, compound interest, annuities, and differential and integral calculus), business statistics, and computers (including general topics, spreadsheets and word processing and electronic communications) may be taken prior to entry in the program. Students who are deficient in written and/or oral communication may be required to take ENGL 1301 and/or SPCH 1301 at U.T. Arlington after enrollment in the program.
These courses should be taken upon entering the MBA program and prior to taking courses in the advanced part of the program. They may not be used as electives in the advanced program.
Accounting Analysis I (ACCT 5301)
Economic Analysis (ECON 5311)
Operations Management (OPMA 5361)
Marketing (MARK 5311)
Finance (FINA 5311)
Management (MANA 5312)
A student may enroll in up to nine hours of advanced courses when schedule conflicts prevent the prior completion of all the core courses. Under these circumstances, hours in excess of nine require advisor approval.
The advanced program provides each student the opportunity to tailor their studies to enhance their desired career opportunities. The careers program outlined below provides excellent support and advice to help the student choose an area of specialty and to select those electives that will build requisite career skills. Available specialties include accounting, E-business, economics, finance, health care, information systems, international business, management, operations management, marketing, and real estate.
Requirements for the advanced program include the following:
BUSA 5325 Advanced Statistical Methods (first advanced course)
BUSA 5330 or BUSA 5337 Legal Environment of Business or Ethics and the Business Environment
ECON 5313 Managerial Economics*
ACCT 5302 Managerial Accounting*
BUSA 5333 Strategic Management (Capstone course – must be taken in the last semester)
* If relevant academic background is extensive enough in this subject area, the graduate advisor may allow the student to correspondingly expand the number of electives in the specialty or breadth area.
Students may take between nine and eighteen hours in a particular functional area and declare a specialty in that area. However, the advanced part of the program must have a minimum of six courses (18 semester hours) outside the area of specialty (five of these courses may be satisfied by the advanced core). Courses taken outside the area of specialty will be considered breadth electives.
Students should tailor their programs of work to develop skills and perspectives essential for business in the 21st century (see Planning a Program of Work). This should normally include approved electives in the following areas: international, technology, leadership/behavioral, and research. Individuals with strong backgrounds in these areas may choose other electives. Some breadth electives may be taken outside the Business College when the student has an academic background in that area or the electives are appropriate to the student's career goal, subject to approval of the graduate advisor.
Requirements for the MBA thesis degree are the same as those for a non-thesis program with the following change. A six-hour thesis must be added to the normal 36 hour advanced MBA program. All candidates for this type degree shall defend the thesis at a final oral examination.
The MBA program follows the grade requirements for probation as specified under the general regulations of the Graduate School. In addition, students must have at least a 3.0 grade point average in all coursework and area of specialty (concentration) to graduate.
Students may be dismissed from the MBA program if they accumulate grade deficiency points greater than allowed. Any grade of C is worth one deficiency point, any grade of D is worth two deficiency points. Deficiency points may not be removed from a student's record by additional coursework.
The maximum allowable deficiency points will be computed by the advisor when the degree plan is prepared, modified or reviewed using the following guidelines:
|Program Length |
(excluding transfer credit)
|Allowable Deficiency Points|
|18 courses or more||4|
All students are encouraged to plan an advanced program of work early in their studies. The process begins with a brief "program planning session" conducted on a walk-in basis in the Graduate Business Services Office. The workshop provides important reference materials to assist students in preparing a preliminary advanced program of work and also provides an outline of the process for finalizing that program with the advisor. After approval, the program of work is entered into the College's CyberAdvising system, which allows students to access their approved program of work and allows permission to register by phone or online each semester for any approved course.
When planning a program of work, students may consider including several opportunities to enhance their career outcomes. Full-time students are encouraged to take advantage of the careers program outlined in the College portion of this catalog. The Careers and Managing in a Changing Environment (BUS4 5338) course provides opportunities for students to discover their own talents and abilities, identify appropriate careers, and explore marketplace opportunities. Such early career positioning allows students to focus their studies on those courses which will provide the most desirable skill sets. Additionally, students may select research topics and case presentations that will develop a strong industry awareness. Study abroad and internship opportunities also expand students' educational experiences on both a curricular and extracurricular basis. These special programs must be approved by a graduate advisor and included in the student's program of work.
Part-time students who are fully employed are encouraged to explore opportunities available in their organizations. Application of classroom information to the daily challenges faced in any business organization will expand students' education and career preparation. The career class (BUS4 5338) will assist working students in seeking greater opportunities in their organizations.
Students may take breadth electives in any of the curriculum areas of the MBA program. Students may take up to six semester hours in non-business coursework as part of their breadth electives, subject to the approval of the MBA Graduate Advisor.
A specialty in accounting requires a minimum of 12 semester hours beyond ACCT 5301 and ACCT 5302. Any four advanced accounting courses may be taken, however, it is recommended that the four courses be selected from the list below:
The international business option (INBO) attracts students from every continent and provides a comprehensive program of challenging study in international business administration. In this option, students may have a traditional MBA specialty (see above) or may choose a broad program of study with no specialty. Generally a student must complete a minimum of 3-4 courses from the international courses listed below in order to be considered as having elected this option.
Students are encouraged to enrich their international education by participating for graduate credit in established foreign exchange programs in Australia, England, France, Germany, Korea, Mexico, and Norway, or by gaining approval to participate in unique study abroad programs offered by other AACSB accredited schools. Appropriate foreign language proficiency must be demonstrated before attending programs in France, Germany and Mexico or when required by study abroad programs. Students are encouraged to participate for academic credit in international business internships available in the Metroplex or overseas as part of an established exchange or study abroad program.
MBA students may further enhance their international skills by participating in the dual degree program with Thunderbird University. Under this program, students may earn both an MBA (UTA) and the Master of International Management (Thunderbird) degrees. This program normally allows students to apply 12 hours of advanced coursework and all core requirements towards both programs. Students wishing to participate may obtain detailed information about the program from the Graduate Business Services Office in the College of Business Administration. Students must independently apply and gain admission to both programs.
Students planning a career in the international field are encouraged to pursue internationally related research topics while taking approved research courses. Research topics may include conducting an area study (Latin American, African, Asian, European, etc.). Students should also recognize the importance of those graduate courses in political science and history, or additional courses in undergraduate foreign languages, which would embellish their graduate studies.
ACCT 5330 International Accounting and Financial Reporting
ACCT 5348 International Tax
BUSA 5331 Law of International Business
ECON 5319 Economic Analysis of International Business
ECON 5321 International Trade and The Global Marketplace
ECON 5327 International Finance and Open Economy Macroeconomics
FINA 5331 Multinational Financial Management
FINA 5332 Seminar in International Financial Markets
MANA 5331 Management of International Operations
MARK 5331 International Marketing
Students holding bachelor's or master's degrees in professional fields such as architecture, education, engineering, nursing, social work, and urban studies have the option of taking, with advisor approval, up to 12 hours of approved breadth electives in their professional area as part of their MBA degree requirements. With these electives, professionals can develop advanced management skill in a functional area by declaring a 9-12 hour specialty, or pursue a more general management approach by declaring "no specialty."
Individuals who hold a graduate degree in business and wish to pursue additional graduate studies in business solely for the purpose of professional development may apply to the Master of Business Administration Program as a special student. Applicants should outline their professional development objectives in their written essay that accompanies their application. Additionally, they must meet all requirements for admission to the MBA program. Coursework in this program must meet the grade requirements of the Graduate School and be completed within a three year time-limit. A certificate will be granted upon successful completion of 12-21 hours of approved coursework in an area of business. Executives completing courses from two or more areas will be awarded a certificate in the area of executive development. Managers or functional specialists completing courses in one area of study will be awarded a certificate for their professional development area. Some courses taken under this program may not be applied in the future toward another graduate degree at this University.
The MBA Online program in General Management provides today's students with the tools necessary to become leaders in the workplace of tomorrow. This challenging degree program pools the impressive resources and diverse perspectives of eight accredited University of Texas System institutions. Students will find a highly skilled, statewide team of professors presenting a broad, interactive curriculum. The program may be completed in as few as two or as many as six years.
Students apply for admission at any of the sponsoring institutions and receive their degrees from that university. To apply at The University of Texas at Arlington, students follow the same procedure required for the in-residence MBA (see the previous section titled Admissions). Applicants to the Online MBA program must specify on their application for admission that they are applying to the Online MBA program.
The Online MBA contains 16 courses (48 credit hours) all of which can be accessed entirely from remote locations. The program leads to an MBA with a specialty in General Management.
The program contains the following 16 courses:
*Accounting Analysis (UTD)
*Economic Analysis (UTD)
Quantitative Analysis (UTSA)
*Marketing Management (UTPB)
*Financial Management (UTA)
Research Methods (UTT)
Information Systems for Managers (UTEP)
Legal Environment in Business (UTB) *Production and Operations Management (UTB) Contemporary Topics in Financial Management (UTPB)
Accounting for Decision Making (UTSA)
Human Resource Management (UTT)
Leadership and Change (UTPA)
Global Strategic Management (UTEP)
Business Policy (UTA)
*denotes Core Courses
Note: UTA denotes classes offered by The University of Texas at Arlington; UTB denotes classes offered by The University of Texas at Brownsville; UTD denotes classes offered by The University of Texas at Dallas; UTEP denotes classes offered by The University of Texas at El Paso; UTPA denotes classes offered by The University of Texas at Pan American; UTPB denotes classes offered by The University of Texas at Permian Basin; UTSA denotes classes offered by The University of Texas at San Antonio and UTT denotes classes offered by The University of Texas at Tyler.
Up to four core courses may be waived based upon recent academic coursework and satisfactory grades. Two additional courses may be waived based upon courses taken in residence at The University of Texas at Arlington. A minimum of 8 courses (24 credit hours) must be taken online. Waivers and transfer credit follow the same regulations as the in-residence MBA (see the previous section titled Waivers and Transfer Credit). For more information, visit the UT TeleCampus Web site: http://www.telecampus.utsystem.edu/programs/MBA/mba.html.
The accelerated MBA program is designed for professionals who are working full-time. In this 28-month, cohort-based program only one course is taken at a time, in accelerated 5-, 6-, or 7-week sessions. Students stay together as a "cohort" throughout all of their coursework.
This program is 48 semester hours for all students and follows the same general curriculum requirements as the regular MBA program. Since all students take the same set of courses, there are no concentration or specialty areas in this program.
The Executive MBA (EMBA) program is designed to provide high-quality graduate management education to mid-level and upper-level managers and executives. The program covers all functional areas of business management and exhibits several content integrating themes associated with successful management of modern business organizations, including project management, international operations, total quality management, and strategic resource alignment.
A cohort-based design with a lock-step, fixed curriculum and heavy emphasis on case studies are prominent features of the EMBA program. Students, who are usually fully employed and sponsored financially by their organizations, enter the program as a group of 30 to 40 and progress through courses together. The schedule of classes is non-traditional and utilizes weekend and accelerated formats. Course content is delivered by the best faculty using methods that maximize student interaction and high levels of knowledge transfer to students' job situations.
The objective of the Doctor of Philosophy in Business Administration degree is primarily to develop scholars with an ability to teach and conduct independent research in various areas of business administration. The program prepares students for careers as creative teachers and researchers by providing thorough preparation in both the theory and practice of business administration. The curriculum emphasizes and develops the rigorous analytical skills needed to make significant contributions in fields of business. Graduates of the program will assume significant roles in the world's educational and research institutions.
Coursework is offered in the following areas: accounting, banking and finance, business economics, business policy/strategic management, business statistics, personnel/human resource management, insurance and risk management, international business management, investments and securities, labor/industrial relations, management information systems, management sciences, marketing management and research, organizational behavior, organizational theory, production/operations management, real estate, small business management and ownership, and taxation. Coursework in these areas of study supports the following major fields: Accounting, Economics, Finance, Information Systems, Management, Marketing, and Operations Management.
Admission to the Ph.D. program is based upon the completion of the general admission requirements of the Graduate School. For Ph.D. program admission a score on the Graduate Management Admission Test (GMAT) or Graduate Record Exam (GRE), and a record of undergraduate and masters academic performance are required. Students for whom English is not their native language must achieve a TOEFL score of at least 550. International applicants that score below minimum acceptable levels on the verbal portion of entrance examinations may be admitted under the condition that they pass an English proficiency exam or complete U.T. Arlington's Graduate English Skills Program prior to beginning graduate coursework. Applicants are encouraged to submit with their application a resume that highlights professional and personal accomplishments, linguistic abilities, computer expertise and leadership experience. A standardized test score (GMAT or GRE) will not be used as the sole criterion for denying an applicant's admission to the Ph.D. program.
Specifically, multiple criteria are used to make admission decisions. Quantitative measures include an applicant's GMAT or GRE score and grade point averages on undergraduate and masters level work as calculated by the Graduate School. No formula is used nor weights assigned to these factors. The Ph.D. Graduate Studies Committee and the field coordinator for the student's track in the Ph.D. program give consideration to these and other factors (educational objectives, letters of recommendation, etc.) in the entire file to arrive at a decision. Interviews with prospective students are encouraged and given consideration in the decision process. There are no set minimum scores for GMAT or GRE required for admission and no cutoff scores on grade point averages. Prospective students are encouraged to work with their track's field coordinator to work through the admission process.
An applicant is unconditionally admitted when all factors for consideration indicate very strong potential for academic success as a business doctoral student. When multiple factors indicate lack of potential, admission will be denied. Probationary admission is not available for the doctoral program.
A provisional decision to admit may be granted when the applicant meets criteria for unconditional admission but an item of applicant information has not been received by the Graduate School. A deferred decision may be made when an applicant's file is not sufficiently complete to make an admit or deny decision.
Doctoral students who are newly admitted, have a minimum undergraduate grade point average of 3.0 as calculated by the Graduate School (and 3.0 at the graduate level), and enroll for a minimum of six semester credit hours will be eligible for available fellowship and/or scholarship support. A standardized test score (GMAT or GRE) will not be used as the sole criterion for determining fellowship and/or scholarship eligibility.
All students must complete work in three fields: a major (dissertation) field, a minor field, and a research field. A minor field may be external to the College of Business Administration. Examples are industrial engineering, mathematics, computer science, sociology, and psychology. The student must petition for approval of an external minor field.
The following minimum semester hours must be included in the student's Program of Study.
|Minimum Semester Hours|
*From 0-15 hours depending upon the student's background at the time of admission to the doctoral program.
**Previous equivalent advanced coursework may be accepted.
Each student enrolled in the doctoral program must enroll for and successfully complete a minimum of 15 hours in one 12-month period prior to completion of the comprehensive examinations. Each student must enroll for at least 12 hours every year. All students enrolled in the program must successfully complete all coursework and comprehensive examinations within a maximum of 60 months from initial enrollment in the program. A minimum of 24 graduate hours in residence, excluding dissertation, are required for all candidates.
All doctoral students are expected to show steady progress toward their degree and to demonstrate satisfactory advances in their ability and motivation to conduct independent research throughout their program. During a student's program, a diagnostic evaluation will be conducted near the end of the first year, but no later than 24 credit hours. After the first year, an annual performance evaluation will take place each subsequent year. The evaluation will be conducted by the major area Ph.D. advisor in consultation with a faculty committee. If the student has not yet passed all comprehensive examinations or does not have a formal dissertation committee, the faculty committee will consist of the faculty in the major area. If the student has passed all comprehensive examinations and has a formal dissertation committee, the faculty committee will consist of the Dissertation Committee.
Upon completion of the evaluation, a recommendation of continuation or discontinuation in the program is made to the College of Business Administration Ph.D. program director for a final decision. For a discontinuation decision resulting from the first year diagnostic evaluation, the student will immediately be discontinued in the Ph.D. program. For a discontinuation decision in the annual performance review in the second year and beyond, the student will have one regular semester (Fall or Spring) to demonstrate satisfactory improvement in their performance. At that time the major area Ph.D. advisor in consultation with the appropriate faculty committee, and the Ph.D. program director, will make a final decision on whether the improvements are satisfactory. An unsatisfactory decision at that time will result in the immediate discontinuation of the student in the program.
During the diagnostic and annual performance reviews, reasons for poor performance include: grade point averages below minimum GPA requirements, unsatisfactory progress in completing coursework, unsatisfactory progress in completing dissertation, and inadequate demonstration of ability and motivation to conduct independent research.
Students must demonstrate competence in their major, minor, and research fields by the successful completion of written examinations. Written comprehensive examinations in each field will be given at the start of each fall and spring semester of each year and may be given during the summer term. A student is eligible for a written comprehensive examination when that student has completed (1) the Business Foundation with a GPA of at least 3.25 and (2) prescribed coursework in the field. A research publication option may also satisfy the minor comprehensive examination.
If a student fails a written comprehensive examination and continues in that field, the examination must be retaken within a period of not more than 13 months. If a student fails a second comprehensive examination in a major or research field, that student will not be permitted to continue in the program. If a student twice fails a written comprehensive examination in a minor field, that student will not be permitted to continue in that field.
A student must complete all written examinations within 25 months or retake any examinations which fall outside the 25-month period. When a student successfully completes all the written examinations, that student is scheduled for a comprehensive oral examination which is administered by the student's Supervisory Committee. A student who fails the comprehensive oral examination is given a second oral examination within 12 months of the date of the first examination. If a student fails the second comprehensive oral examination, that student will not be permitted to continue in the program.
Upon successful completion of written and oral comprehensive examinations, the student is admitted to candidacy.
The Dissertation Committee consists of a minimum of five members. The chair of the Dissertation Committee must be from the major field. At least one member of the committee must be from the research field and one member of the committee must be from outside the major field. With the approval of the Graduate Dean, one of the five members may be a nationally or internationally recognized non-U.T. Arlington scholar.
Following completion of the comprehensive examinations, students will be required to enroll for at least nine hours of dissertation each regular semester and at least six hours each summer until completion of the dissertation. See Doctoral Requirements for Dissertations at the front of this catalog for exceptions. Students must register for a minimum total of 18 semester hours of dissertation and must be enrolled for a minimum of nine hours of dissertation in the semester in which they defend the dissertation.
The dissertation must be completed within four years of the oral comprehensive examination.
The grade of R (research in progress) is a permanent grade; completing course requirements in a later semester cannot change it. To receive credit for an R-graded course, the student must continue to enroll in the course until a passing grade is received.
An incomplete grade (the grade of X) cannot be given in a course that is graded R, nor can the grade of R be given in a course that is graded X. To receive credit for a course in which the student earned an X, the student must complete the course requirements. Enrolling again in the course in which an X was earned cannot change a grade of X. At the discretion of the instructor, a final grade can be assigned through a change of grade form.
Three-hour thesis courses and three- and six-hour dissertation courses are graded R/F/W only (except social work thesis courses). The grade of P (required for degree completion for students enrolled in thesis or dissertation programs) can be earned only in six- or nine-hour thesis courses and nine-hour dissertation courses. In the course listings below, R-graded courses are designated either "Graded P/F/R" or "Graded R." Occasionally, the valid grades for a course change. Students should consult the appropriate Graduate Advisor or instructor for valid grade information for particular courses. (See also the sections titled "R" Grade, Credit for Research, Internship, Thesis or Dissertation Courses and Incomplete Grade in this catalog.)